# Statistics Solver

## Statistics Solver

Learn about central measures of tendency (mean, median, mode), measures of dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation, mean deviation, median deviation), and relative measures (coefficient of range, coefficient of variation) to analyze and interpret statistical data effectively.

#### Introduction to Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data. It provides tools for making sense of complex data sets and drawing meaningful conclusions from them.

#### Central Measures of Tendency

1. Mean (Average):

• The mean is the sum of all the values divided by the number of values.
• Formula: $\text{Mean} (\bar{x}) = \frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n} x_i}{n}$
• Example: For the dataset {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}, the mean is $$\frac{2 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 11}{5} = 5.6$$.
2. Median:

• The median is the middle value when the data is ordered.
• For an odd number of observations, it is the middle value.
• For an even number of observations, it is the average of the two middle values.
• Example: For the dataset {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}, the median is 5. For {2, 3, 5, 7}, the median is $$\frac{3 + 5}{2} = 4$$.
3. Mode:

• The mode is the value that appears most frequently in the dataset.
• A dataset can have one mode, more than one mode, or no mode at all.
• Example: For the dataset {2, 3, 3, 5, 7}, the mode is 3.

#### Measures of Dispersion

Measures of dispersion describe the spread or variability of a dataset.

1. Range:

• The range is the difference between the highest and lowest values.
• Formula: $\text{Range} = \text{Max} – \text{Min}$
• Example: For the dataset {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}, the range is $$11 – 2 = 9$$.
2. Variance:

• Variance measures how far each value in the dataset is from the mean.
• Formula (for population variance): $\sigma^2 = \frac{\sum_{i=1}^{N} (x_i – \mu)^2}{N}$
• Formula (for sample variance): $s^2 = \frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n} (x_i – \bar{x})^2}{n-1}$
• Example: For the dataset {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}, the variance (sample) is $$s^2 = \frac{(2-5.6)^2 + (3-5.6)^2 + (5-5.6)^2 + (7-5.6)^2 + (11-5.6)^2}{4} = 10.3$$.
3. Standard Deviation:

• The standard deviation is the square root of the variance.
• Formula (for population): $\sigma = \sqrt{\sigma^2}$
• Formula (for sample): $s = \sqrt{s^2}$
• Example: For the dataset {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}, the standard deviation (sample) is $$s = \sqrt{10.3} \approx 3.21$$.
4. Mean Deviation:

• Mean deviation is the average of the absolute differences between each value and the mean.
• Formula: $\text{Mean Deviation} = \frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n} |x_i – \bar{x}|}{n}$
• Example: For the dataset {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}, the mean deviation is $$\frac{|2-5.6| + |3-5.6| + |5-5.6| + |7-5.6| + |11-5.6|}{5} = 2.72$$.
5. Median Deviation:

• Median deviation is the median of the absolute differences between each value and the median.
• Example: For the dataset {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}, with the median being 5, the deviations are {3, 2, 0, 2, 6}, and the median of these deviations is 2.
6. Coefficient of Range:

• The coefficient of range is a relative measure of the range.
• Formula: $\text{Coefficient of Range} = \frac{\text{Max} – \text{Min}}{\text{Max} + \text{Min}}$
• Example: For the dataset {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}, the coefficient of range is $$\frac{11 – 2}{11 + 2} = \frac{9}{13} \approx 0.69$$.
7. Coefficient of Variation:

• The coefficient of variation is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean, expressed as a percentage.
• Formula: $\text{Coefficient of Variation} = \frac{s}{\bar{x}} \times 100\%$
• Example: For the dataset {2, 3, 5, 7, 11}, with a mean of 5.6 and a standard deviation of 3.21, the coefficient of variation is $$\frac{3.21}{5.6} \times 100\% \approx 57.32\%$$.

Understanding these statistical measures is crucial for analyzing and interpreting data effectively. These tools help summarize large datasets, identify patterns, and make informed decisions based on data.

### Summary

• Central Measures of Tendency: Mean, Median, Mode
• Measures of Dispersion: Range, Variance, Standard Deviation, Mean Deviation, Median Deviation
• Relative Measures: Coefficient of Range, Coefficient of Variation