# Quick Math Graphical Differential Calculus

## Quick Math Graphical Differential Calculus

##### Enter expression in this form

Example (common function)

- \( f(x) = 2x + 1 \) enter as 2x +1
- \( f(x) = x^2 - 4x + 3 \) enter as x^2 - 4x + 3
- \( f(x) = \sin(x) \) enter as sin(x)
- \( f(x) = 3 \sin(5x) + 5 \cos(x) \) enter as 3sin(5x) + 5cos(x)

##### Using Order of Differentiation

The order of differentiation indicates how many times a function has been differentiated.

- for second-order, click on button #2 and enter \( f(x) = x^4 - 4x^2 + 3 \) as x^4 - 4x ^2+ 3
- repeat this procedure until you reach your maximum orders of choice to be differentiated

### Graphical Differential Calculus

Graphical differential calculus involves the use of graphs to understand and visualize the concepts of derivatives and slopes of functions. This approach helps in comprehending how functions change and in finding the rate of change at specific points.

#### Key Concepts

1. Slope of a Function: The derivative of a function at a point gives the slope of the tangent line to the function at that point.

2. Tangent Line: A line that touches the curve at a single point without crossing it. The slope of this tangent line is the value of the derivative at that point.

3. Critical Points: Points where the derivative is zero or undefined, indicating potential local maxima, minima, or points of inflection.

#### Steps in Graphical Differential Calculus

1. Plot the Function: Begin by graphing the function \( f(x) \).

2. Draw Tangent Lines: At various points on the curve, draw tangent lines to represent the derivative at those points.

3. Determine Slope: The slope of each tangent line corresponds to the value of the derivative at that point.

#### Examples

**Example** 1: Linear Function

Function: \( f(x) = 2x + 1 \)

#### Graphical Interpretation:

1. Plot the linear function \( f(x) = 2x + 1 \).

2. The slope of the function is constant (2) everywhere.

3. Draw any tangent line, which will have a slope of 2, showing that the derivative \( f'(x) = 2 \).

**Example** 2: Quadratic Function

Function: \( f(x) = x^2 – 4x + 3 \)

#### Graphical Interpretation:

1. Plot the quadratic function \( f(x) = x^2 – 4x + 3 \).

2. At each point, draw tangent lines to the curve.

3. Calculate slopes of the tangent lines. For instance:

– At \( x = 0 \): Tangent slope \( f'(0) = -4 \)

– At \( x = 2 \): Tangent slope \( f'(2) = 0 \) (critical point)

– At \( x = 4 \): Tangent slope \( f'(4) = 4 \)

#### Example 3: Cubic Function

Function: \( f(x) = x^3 – 3x^2 + 2x \)

#### Graphical Interpretation:

1. Plot the cubic function \( f(x) = x^3 – 3x^2 + 2x \).

2. Draw tangent lines at various points on the curve.

3. Determine the slopes of these tangents:

– At \( x = 0 \): Tangent slope \( f'(0) = 2 \)

– At \( x = 1 \): Tangent slope \( f'(1) = 0 \) (critical point)

– At \( x = 3 \): Tangent slope \( f'(3) = 2 \)

### Order of Differentiation in Differential Calculus

Order of differentiation refers to the number of times a function is differentiated. The order indicates the level of the derivative being taken.

#### First Order Derivative

The first-order derivative of a function \( f(x) \), denoted by \( f'(x) \) or \( \frac{df}{dx} \), represents the rate of change of \( f(x) \) with respect to \( x \). It provides the slope of the tangent line to the function at any given point.

#### Second Order Derivative

The second-order derivative, denoted by \( f”(x) \) or \( \frac{d^2f}{dx^2} \), is the derivative of the first-order derivative. It measures the rate of change of the rate of change of the function. In physical terms, for a position function, the second-order derivative represents acceleration.

#### Higher-Order Derivatives

Higher-order derivatives are obtained by successively differentiating the function. The \( n \)-th order derivative, denoted by \( f^{(n)}(x) \) or \( \frac{d^n f}{dx^n} \), is the result of differentiating the function \( n \) times.

#### Examples

Example 1: First and Second Order Derivatives of a Polynomial

Function:

\[ f(x) = x^3 – 3x^2 + 2x \]

First-order derivative:

\[ f'(x) = 3x^2 – 6x + 2 \]

Second-order derivative:

\[ f”(x) = 6x – 6 \]

Example 2: Higher-Order Derivatives of an Exponential Function

Function:

\[ f(x) = e^x \]

First-order derivative:

\[ f'(x) = e^x \]

Second-order derivative:

\[ f”(x) = e^x \]

Third-order derivative:

\[ f^{(3)}(x) = e^x \]

In this case, all higher-order derivatives of \( e^x \) are equal to \( e^x \).

Example 3: Higher-Order Derivatives of a Trigonometric Function

Function:

\[ f(x) = \sin(x) \]

First-order derivative:

\[ f'(x) = \cos(x) \]

Second-order derivative:

\[ f”(x) = -\sin(x) \]

Third-order derivative:

\[ f^{(3)}(x) = -\cos(x) \]

Fourth-order derivative:

\[ f^{(4)}(x) = \sin(x) \]

#### Practical Applications

– Physics: Graphically determining the velocity (derivative of position) or acceleration (derivative of velocity).

– Economics: Finding marginal cost or revenue graphically.

– Engineering: Analyzing stress-strain curves and finding rates of change in materials.

– Physics: Higher-order derivatives describe concepts such as acceleration (second-order derivative of position) and jerk (third-order derivative of position).

– Engineering: Used in analyzing vibrations and oscillations in mechanical systems.

– Economics: Higher-order derivatives can be used to understand the concavity and convexity of cost and profit functions, influencing decision-making processes.

#### Summary

Graphical differential calculus provides a visual approach to understanding derivatives. By plotting functions and drawing tangent lines, one can interpret the rate of change at different points, identify critical points, and analyze the behavior of functions graphically. This method is particularly useful for gaining intuitive insights into the nature of functions and their derivatives.

The order of differentiation indicates how many times a function has been differentiated. The first-order derivative represents the slope or rate of change, the second-order derivative represents the rate of change of the rate of change, and higher-order derivatives provide further insights into the behavior and properties of functions.